Young children’s motivations and social cognitions toward swimming: Testing direct and moderation effects of sport competence in two large-scale studies

King Chung Derwin CHAN, Alfred Sing Yeung LEE, Tracy Chor Wai TANG, Kiko LEUNG, Joan Sau Kwan CHUNG, Martin S. HAGGER, Kyra HAMILTON

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

Abstract

Direct and moderation effects of swimming competence using an integrated model of self-determination theory (SDT) and theory of planned behaviour (TPB) were examined in two large-scale studies among young children. Specifically, we examined whether swimming competence had direct and moderation effects on social psychological variables of perceived need support, autonomous motivation, TPB social cognition constructs, and intention. In Study 1, using a cross-sectional survey of 4959 primary school children, swimming competence formed significant positive relationships with all model variables (β =.061 to.330, p <.05) except intention (β = -.009, p >.05), and its moderation effect on model parameters were small in size or not statistically significant. In Study 2, using a pre-post-test quasi-experiment among 1,609 primary school children, improvement of swimming competence was associated with change-scores in all model variables (β =.046 to.230, p <.05) except subjective norm (β =.049, p >.05). Swimming competence did not significantly moderate the parameter estimates of the integrated model (p >.05) at the change-score level. Findings indicate that swimming competence is associated with higher autonomous motivation; TPB social cognitions of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control; and intention. However, swimming competence did not moderate the parameter estimates of the integrated model. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)859-873
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Volume41
Issue number9
Early online dateJul 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Citation

Chan, D. K. C., Lee, A. S. Y., Tang, T. C. W., Leung, K., Chung, J. S. K., Hagger, M. S., & Hamilton, K. (2023). Young children’s motivations and social cognitions toward swimming: Testing direct and moderation effects of sport competence in two large-scale studies. Journal of Sports Sciences, 41(9), 859-873. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2023.2241782

Keywords

  • Swimming ability
  • Social cognition
  • Theoretical integration
  • Self-efficacy
  • Theory of planned behaviour
  • Self-determined motivation

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