A winter wheat field plot experiment was conducted on two types of paddy soils, from November, 2000 to June, 2001 to assess P losses to its surrounding watercourses by runoff in the Taihu Lake Region. Commercial NPK compound fertilizer and single superphosphate fertilizer were applied to furnish 0, 20, 80, and 160 kg P ha⁻¹. The experiments consisted of six replicates of each treatment in Changshu site and four replicates in Anzhen site, with a plot size of 5 × 6 m² in a randomized block design. Results revealed that the average concentration of dissolved P (DP), particulate P (PP), and total P (TP) in runoff water during the winter season was 0.13, 0.90 and 1.04 mg P l⁻¹ respectively, from P20 plots in Anzhen site. While it was 0.67, 1.08 and 1.75 mg P l⁻¹ respectively, from P20 plots in Changshu site. The seasonal TP load (mass loss) from P20 plot ranged from a low of 290.88 g P ha⁻¹ season⁻¹ to a high of 483.54 g P ha⁻¹ season⁻¹−1, with a mean of 382.29 g P ha⁻¹ season⁻¹ in Anzhen, but from 444.92 to 752.21 g P ha⁻¹ season⁻¹, with a mean of 539.13 g P ha⁻¹ season⁻¹ in Changshu. Both in Anzhen and Changshu PP represented a major portion of the TP lost in runoff, the average PP/TP was about more than 80% in P0 and P20 plot, but it was decreased with the increase of P rate. The average seasonal P loads (DP, PP, and TP) in Changshu were greater than in Anzhen although runoff volume in Anzhen (45 mm season⁻¹) was more than in Changshu (36 mm season⁻¹). This was probably associated with the differences of soil physical and chemical properties between the two sites. Phosphate fertilizer rate significantly affected P concentrations and P loads by runoff. Both the mean concentrations and the average seasonal P loads from the P80 plots were lower than from the P160 plots, but obviously higher than from the P20 and P0 plots. There was no significant difference found between the P20 plots and the P0 plots both in Anzhen and Changshu sites. It indicated that P loads by runoff would be greatly increased in 5–10 years due to the accumulation of soil P if 20 kg P ha⁻¹ applied each wheat season in this area. Copyright © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CitationZhang, H., Cao, Z., Wang, G., Zhang, H., & Wong, M. H. (2003). Winter runoff losses of phosphorus from paddy soils in the Taihu Lake Region of South China. Chemosphere, 52(9), 1461-1466. doi: 10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00483-1
- Phosphorus loss
- Winter time
- Taihu Lake