Where are we in embedding spaces?

Sixiao ZHANG, Hongxu CHEN, Xiao MING, Lizhen CUI, Hongzhi YIN, Guandong XU

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapters

14 Citations (Scopus)


Hyperbolic space and hyperbolic embeddings are becoming a popular research field for recommender systems. However, it is not clear under what circumstances the hyperbolic space should be considered. To fill this gap, This paper provides theoretical analysis and empirical results on when and where to use hyperbolic space and hyperbolic embeddings in recommender systems. Specifically, we answer the questions that which type of models and datasets are more suited for hyperbolic space, as well as which latent size to choose. We evaluate our answers by comparing the performance of Euclidean space and hyperbolic space on different latent space models in both general item recommendation domain and social recommendation domain, with 6 widely used datasets and different latent sizes. Additionally, we propose a new metric learning based recommendation method called SCML and its hyperbolic version HSCML. We evaluate our conclusions regarding hyperbolic space on SCML and show the state-of-the-art performance of hyperbolic space by comparing HSCML with other baseline methods. Copyright © 2021 Association for Computing Machinery.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 27th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
ISBN (Electronic)9781450383325
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


Zhang, S., Chen, H., Ming, X., Cui, L., Yin, H., & Xu, G. (2021). Where are we in embedding spaces? In Proceedings of the 27th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining (pp. 2223-2231). Association for Computing Machinery. https://doi.org/10.1145/3447548.3467421


  • Recommender systems
  • Hyperbolic space
  • Node embeddings


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