What effective classroom? Towards a paradigm shift

Yin Cheong CHENG, Magdalena Mo Ching MOK

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


The initiatives for educational effectiveness experienced 3 waves of movements. Each wave had its own paradigm in conceptualizing the nature of education and its effectiveness and formulating related initiatives for improvement of educational practice in the classroom. This article aims to discuss how the conceptualization and characteristics of the effective classroom are changed with the paradigm shift from the traditional site-bounded paradigm toward the new Contextualized Multiple Intelligences (CMI)-triplization paradigm. With the support of empirical data, the profiles of effective and ineffective classrooms in the 1st and 3rd waves are mapped and discussed, and some implications are drawn for research and development of a new type of classroom effectiveness. Copyright © 2008 Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-385
JournalSchool Effectiveness and School Improvement
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2008


Cheng, Y. C., & Mok, M. M. C. (2008). What effective classroom? Towards a paradigm shift. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 19(4), 365-385.


  • Classroom effectiveness
  • Classroom process
  • Classroom improvement
  • Education reform
  • Paradigm shift
  • Classroom characteristics
  • Learning environment
  • Learning context


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