What are the inclusive teaching tasks that require the highest self-efficacy?

Francisco Tsz Tsun LAI, Ping Ying Eria LI, Mingxia JI, Wikki W. K. WONG, Sing Kai LO

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)


Inclusive teaching tasks have consistently been found challenging for teachers, but it is unclear how they are ranked in terms of the extent of self-efficacy required. This study aimed at deriving such a hierarchy. A survey was conducted on 107 primary school teachers in Hong Kong using the Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices scale. A Rasch rating scale model was applied to empirically examine the hierarchical structure. Good person reliability (0.89) and model fit (MNSQ 0.6–1.4) were achieved. Managing physical aggression was found at the top of the hierarchy; this and other results could facilitate the identification of training needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)338-346
JournalTeaching and Teacher Education
Early online dateJul 2016
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016



Lai, F. T. T., Li, E. P. Y., Ji, M., Wong, W. W. K. , & Lo, S. K. (2016). What are the inclusive teaching tasks that require the highest self-efficacy?. Teacher Education, 59, 338-346.


  • Inclusive education
  • Teacher efficacy
  • Rasch rating scale model
  • Special educational needs