Conceptual Framework: This study is founded on the framework of life satisfaction (Huebner, 2001), spiritual health (SH) (Fisher, 1999; 2008), academic engagement (AE) (Appleton et al., 2008) and civic engagement (CE) (Schulz et al., 2008). Objective: To investigate the structural relationships among SH, SE and CE of secondary students. Method: The study employs an integrated questionnaire survey to unfold the complex relationships among the three factors: SH, SE and CE. Over 8500 students aged 12 – 19 were surveyed in 2015. The following hypotheses were tested: (H1) SH is positively predictive for SE. (H2) SH is positively predictive for CE. (H3) Students’ SE is predictive for their CE. (H4) The effect of SH on CE is mediated by SE. Results: Our findings confirm the structural relationships with SH having a significant direct effect on SE (0.883***) but not directly on CE (-0.028). Moreover, SE contributes significantly and positively to CE (0.753***). Spiritual health does not have a significant impact on civic engagement. However, a significant indirect effect of SH on CE via SE (0.665***) was confirmed. Discussion and conclusion: Our overall findings have supported the aforementioned hypotheses with one indirect effect between SH and CE. The study concludes that SH is a core factor with regard to positive student development academically and socially. Additionally, desirable school engagement is linked with students’ future societal engagement such as obeying rules and laws, serving others, expressing their views on civic issues and voting etc. Implications for developing a success for all engagement framework are discussed.
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2016|