Validity and reliability of the sport motivation scale-II for Chinese athletes

Chunxiao LI, Masato KAWABATA, Liancheng ZHANG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)


Self-determination theory (SDT) has been widely used for studying athlete motivation. The Sport Motivation Scale-II (SMS-II), a SDT-based multidimensional scale, was recently developed to assess athlete motivation. The present research consisting of three studies aimed to develop the Chinese version of the SMS-II (CSMS-II). In Study 1, the SMS-II was translated into Chinese and then administered to university athletes (N = 267). The factorial structure of the CSMS-II was tested with confirmatory factor analysis and it was generally supported. In Study 2, the factorial and external validity of the CSMS-II were evidenced with another independent sample of athletes (N = 259). In Study 3, the test–retest reliability of the CSMS-II responses was supported. In conclusion, the CSMS-II is considered reliable and valid in general for the use with the Chinese university athletes. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Sport Psychology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-64
JournalInternational Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Issue number1
Early online dateMar 2016
Publication statusPublished - 2018


Reproducibility of Results
Personal Autonomy
Statistical Factor Analysis


Li, C., Kawabata, M., & Zhang, L. (2018). Validity and reliability of the sport motivation scale-II for Chinese athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(1), 51-64. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2016.1153130


  • Motivation
  • Scale validation
  • Behavioural regulation
  • Chinese version