Validation of the swimming competence questionnaire for children

King Chung Derwin CHAN, Alfred Sing Yeung LEE, Duncan J. MACFARLANE, Martin S. HAGGER, Kyra HAMILTON

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Two studies were employed to test the reliability and validity of the Swimming Competence Questionnaire (SCQ) among primary school children. Study 1 was a cross-sectional survey in 4959 primary school children. Study 2 was a pre-post-test quasi-experiment among 1609 primary school children who underwent a 20-lesson learn-to-swim programme. In Study 1, exploratory structural equation modelling revealed excellent goodness-of-fit and scale reliability for a two-factor model comprising distance and skill factors, which supported the construct and convergent validity. SCQ scores were significantly and positively correlated with swimming outcomes (i.e., self-efficacy, intention, swimming frequency), which supported SCQ's concurrent and criterion validity. Average variance extracted for the SCQ factors exceeded cut-off criteria supporting discriminant validity. In Study 2, pre-test SCQ scores correlated significantly and positively with the SCQ scores, self-efficacy, intention, and swimming frequency at post-test, which supported SCQ's test-retest reliability and predictive validity. Positive intraclass correlation between SCQ scores and coach ratings at post-test provided evidence for SCQ's inter-rater reliability. SCQ scores significantly improved at post-test, which supported SCQ's ecological validity. In conclusion, findings indicate that the SCQ is a valid and reliable measure to assess primary school children's swimming competence, in terms of swimming distance and basic water survival skills. Copyright © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1666-1673
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Issue number14
Early online dateApr 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2020


Chan, D. K. C., Lee, A. S. Y., Macfarlane, D. J., Hagger, M. S., & Hamilton, K. (2020). Validation of the swimming competence questionnaire for children, 38(14), 1666-1673. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2020.1754724


  • Psychometric tool
  • Self-efficacy
  • Sport competence
  • Water safety
  • Validity


Dive into the research topics of 'Validation of the swimming competence questionnaire for children'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.