Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in Elite Karate Athletes

Pui Lam WONG, Erik C. H. TAN, Anis CHAOUACHI, Christopher CARLING, Carlo CASTAGNA, Jonathan BROOMFIELD, David G. BEHM

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between squat loads and 2 bilateral and 2 unilateral stepping lower-body exercises in predominantly unilateral movement elite athletes (Karate). Equations to predict loads for lower-body exercises based on the squat load were also determined. Fourteen male elite Karate athletes (age = 22.6 ± 1.2 years) performed 6 repetition maximum (RM) of the following free-weight bilateral exercises: back half squat, deadlift, leg press and unilateral stepping exercises, lunge; and step-up. Results showed that 6RM squat load was significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with deadlift (r = 0.86), leg press (r = 0.76), lunge (r = 0.86), and step-up (r = 0.92). Linear regression showed that the 6RM squat load was a significant predictor for deadlift, leg press, lunge, and step-up (R2 range from 0.57 to 0.85, p < 0.001). The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Deadlift = squat load (1.12)-16.60 kg, (b) Leg press = squat load (1.66) + 16.10 kg, (c) Lunge = squat load (0.61) + 9.39 kg, and (d) step-up = squat load (0.85)-10.36 kg. Coaches and fitness professionals can use the 6RM squat load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for both bilateral and unilateral lower-body exercises with quadriceps as the prime mover. Load prescriptions for unilateral exercises should take into account the type of athletic population. Copyright © 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association. 
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3075-3080
JournalJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010


Martial Arts
Linear Models
Weights and Measures


Wong, D. P., Tan, E. C. H, Chaouachi, A., Carling, C., Castagna, C., Bloomfield, J., et al. (2010). Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in Elite Karate Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(11), 3075-3080. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d65071


  • Load estimates
  • Resistance
  • Strength
  • Unilateral
  • Bilateral