Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in Elite Karate Athletes

Pui Lam WONG, Erik C. H. TAN, Anis CHAOUACHI, Christopher CARLING, Carlo CASTAGNA, Jonathan BROOMFIELD, David G. BEHM

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between squat loads and 2 bilateral and 2 unilateral stepping lower-body exercises in predominantly unilateral movement elite athletes (Karate). Equations to predict loads for lower-body exercises based on the squat load were also determined. Fourteen male elite Karate athletes (age = 22.6 ± 1.2 years) performed 6 repetition maximum (RM) of the following free-weight bilateral exercises: back half squat, deadlift, leg press and unilateral stepping exercises, lunge; and step-up. Results showed that 6RM squat load was significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with deadlift (r = 0.86), leg press (r = 0.76), lunge (r = 0.86), and step-up (r = 0.92). Linear regression showed that the 6RM squat load was a significant predictor for deadlift, leg press, lunge, and step-up (R2 range from 0.57 to 0.85, p < 0.001). The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Deadlift = squat load (1.12)-16.60 kg, (b) Leg press = squat load (1.66) + 16.10 kg, (c) Lunge = squat load (0.61) + 9.39 kg, and (d) step-up = squat load (0.85)-10.36 kg. Coaches and fitness professionals can use the 6RM squat load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for both bilateral and unilateral lower-body exercises with quadriceps as the prime mover. Load prescriptions for unilateral exercises should take into account the type of athletic population. Copyright © 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association. 
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3075-3080
JournalJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010



Wong, D. P., Tan, E. C. H, Chaouachi, A., Carling, C., Castagna, C., Bloomfield, J., et al. (2010). Using squat testing to predict training loads for lower-body exercises in Elite Karate Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(11), 3075-3080. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d65071


  • Load estimates
  • Resistance
  • Strength
  • Unilateral
  • Bilateral