Using mindful self-compassion (MSC) as a strategy to reduce stress and develop self-compassion in nursing students

Ling Ngai TUNG

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Theses


The aim of the current study is to explore the effects of a mindful self-compassion (MSC) program on nursing students’ self-compassion with mindfulness, compassion fatigue, and stress. The study was a randomized wait-list controlled design conducted in Hong Kong. All participating subjects were students with clinical practicum experience in Registered Nurse (RN) programs. They were randomized into equal-sized intervention and wait-list control groups. The subjects in the intervention (INT) group participated first in an 8-week MSC program conducted by a certified MSC teacher, then followed by the subjects in the wait-list control (WLC) group with the same MSC program. Data were collected at various time points: before the MSC program, 4 weeks into the MSC program, upon completion of the MSC program, and 4 weeks after completion of the MSC program. The effects of the MSC training were measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire - Chinese version (FFMQ-C), Self-Compassion Scale – Chinese (SCS-C), Chinese Professional Quality of Life scale (Chinese ProQOL-5), and the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (Chinese PSS). When comparing the two groups, significant differences were identified in individual facets of mindfulness (observing, acting-with-awareness, nonjudging-of-inner-experience, and nonreactivity-of-inner-experience) and their overall scores using the FFMQ-C questionnaire; constructs of self-compassion (self-kindness, self-judgment, common-humanity, isolation, mindfulness, and over-identification) and their overall scores in the SCS-C questionnaire; levels of compassion fatigue (compassion satisfaction and burnout) using the Chinese ProQOL-5 questionnaire; and levels of stress using the Chinese PSS questionnaire. The MSC program was found to be effective in increasing the mindfulness and self-compassion levels, while decreasing the compassion fatigue, burnout, and stress levels of the nursing students. The findings suggest that the MSC program can be used as a stress reduction strategy for nursing students. To extend the applicability of the MSC program, future studies may focus on participants with psychological problems. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • The Education University of Hong Kong
  • CHUNG, Wai Yee Joanne, Supervisor
  • MATSUNOBU, Koji 松信浩二, Supervisor
  • WONG, Kwok Shing Thomas, Supervisor, External person
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Mindful self-compassion
  • Mindfulness
  • Compassion fatigue
  • Stress
  • Nursing education
  • Theses and Dissertations
  • Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Education University of Hong Kong, 2019.


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