Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in fish fillet counteract the health benefits of fish products. In this study, food waste was used as a protein alternative to replacing fishmeal commonly used in the commercial fish feed, aiming to cultivate Sabah grouper with acceptable levels of dioxins and dl-PCBs. The concentrations of dioxins and dl-PCBs, as well as the fish growth performance, were compared between the fish groups fed with food waste-based feed (FWBF) and commercial feed (Nanyu®, control). The results showed that the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) (1.22 pg/g dry weight (d.w.)) and non-ortho-dl-PCBs (13.0 pg/g d.w.) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the FWBF than in the control feed (commercial feed) (PCDDs: 2.35 pg/g d.w.; non-ortho-dl-PCBs: 27.2 pg/g d.w.). The growth performance of the fish group fed with the FWBF was comparable to that fed with the control feed. There were no significant differences between the WHO₂₀₀₅₋TEQ values of different fish fillets (1.00, 1.11, and 1.10 pg WHO₂₀₀₅₋TEQ/g d.w. for FWBF group, control feed group, and local market fish, respectively). Based on the guidelines provided by European Food Safety Authority (ESFA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the fish fed with the FWBF were safe for human consumption (hazard index values: 0.284–0.522; cancer risk range: 2.59–2.97 × 10⁻⁵). The findings of this study suggest that food waste could serve as an alternative protein source for cultivating Sabah grouper with acceptable levels of dioxins and dl-PCBs. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CitationMan, Y. B., Zhang, F., Mo, W. Y., Chow, K. L., & Wong, M. H. (2022). Using food waste to cultivate safe, good-quality Sabah (giant hybrid) grouper: Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls. Environmental Pollution, 313. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120122
- Cancer risk
- Risk assessment
- Toxic equivalents
- Fish feed ingredients