Using “First Principles of Instruction” to design mathematics flipped classroom for underperforming students

Chung Kwan LO, Khe Foon HEW

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Although the use of Flipped Classroom has become increasingly popular among many educators, there is a pressing need to study how it is designed, implemented, and evaluated in actual practice. Moreover, there is scarcity of research on using Flipped Classroom as a remedial strategy in secondary school Mathematics education. The present article reports a study that explores the use of Merrill’s First Principle of Instruction as an overarching framework to guide the design of Flipped Classroom. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory is the main theory that informed the design of the learning activities. The Flipped Classroom learning environment was provided for 13 Form 6 (Grade 12) students who were underperforming in Mathematics. We examined the efficacy of the Flipped Classroom approach by using students’ pre-post-test scores, student interviews, and teacher interview. Results of a paired t-test suggested a significant improvement in the students’ post-test scores. While student perceptions of Flipped Classroom were generally positive, several suggestions for future design and implementation of Flipped Classroom are proposed based on the students’ and teacher’s suggestions. Copyright © 2017 International Journal of Learning and Teaching.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)82-89
JournalInternational Journal of Learning and Teaching
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017



Lo, C. K., & Hew, K. F. (2017). Using “First Principles of Instruction” to design mathematics flipped classroom for underperforming students. International Journal of Learning and Teaching, 3(2), 82-89. doi: 10.18178/ijlt.3.2.82-89


  • Flipped classroom
  • First principles of instruction
  • Experiential learning theory
  • Mathematics
  • Underperforming students