University students’ concepts of nation in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau: Patriotism or nationalism?

Hui LI, Meng U. LEONG, Koon Lin WONG, Jinxin ZHU, Chi-Chen CHEN

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

Abstract

This study investigated the concepts of nation among university students in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau. The findings revealed a lack of consistent patterns among university students’ perceptions of patriotism and nationalism across these regions. Ideological differences were observed, with students in Mainland China and Hong Kong representing the extremes of collectivism and individualism, respectively. Students in Hong Kong demonstrated a blended perspective of nationalism and patriotism rooted in localism, while students in Mainland China clearly distinguished between nationalism and patriotism within culture localism. Students in Macau exhibited perspectives that ft somewhere between those of their counterparts in Hong Kong and Mainland China. Hong Kong has encountered unique challenges in implementing patriotic education, while Mainland China and Macau have implemented it effectively. As a result, Macau has achieved better integration with Mainland China than Hong Kong in the postcolonial era. However, the key educational stakeholders in these societies must reassess their policies on preparing youths for the complex world and recognize their desire for authenticity and external recognition. Copyright © 2024 The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.
Original languageEnglish
JournalHigher Education
Early online dateMay 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - May 2024

Citation

Li, H., L, M. U., Wong, K. L. L., Zhu, J., & Chen, C.-C. (2024). University students’ concepts of nation in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau: Patriotism or nationalism? Higher Education. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-024-01235-9

Keywords

  • University students
  • Concepts of nation
  • Nationalism
  • Patriotism
  • Patriotic education

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