We examined whether strategies of memorization, transfer through elaboration, and metacognition accounted for reading, science, and mathematics achievement across 34 countries. 158,848 fifteen-year-olds completed a reading literacy test and a questionnaire. Of these students, 88,401 completed a science test, and 88,590 completed a mathematics test. We analyzed the data using multi-level regressions of Rasch-estimated test scores and modeled differences across countries and across schools. Students who reported using memorization strategies often scored lower in all subjects. Transfer through elaboration was not significantly linked to any achievement scores. Lastly, students reporting greater use of metacognitive strategies often scored higher. Compared to students in individualistic societies, to achievement scores of students in collective cultures were linked more strongly to schoolmates' use of metacognitive strategies and less strongly to their own use of metacognitive strategies. These results highlight how cultural contexts can moderate the links between adolescents' learning strategies and their academic achievement. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc.
|Journal||Learning and Individual Differences|
|Publication status||Published - 2007|
CitationChiu, M. M., Chow, B. W.-Y., & Mcbride-Chang, C. (2007). Universals and specifics in learning strategies: Explaining adolescent mathematics, science, and reading achievement across 34 countries. Learning and Individual Differences, 17(4), 344-365.
- Cultural differences
- Learning strategies
- Social environment
- Economic factors
- Secondary school students