Ultra violet filters in the urine of preschool children and drinking water

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Benzophenones (BPs) and other ultra violet (UV) filters (UV-filters) are widely used in sunblock and other personal care products, raising concerns about their adverse health risks to human, especially for children. In the present study, BP-type UV-filters and other four widely used UV-filters were evaluated in the child urinary samples (4–6 years, n = 53), tap water and commercial distilled water in Hong Kong. The results suggested that the target chemicals are ubiquitous in the subject. BP1, BP2, BP3 and BP4 in children urine samples contributed closely to the overall children exposure of UV filters, with detection rates above 58% and geometric means ranging from 44.2 to 76.7 ng/mL. As a contrast, BP3 was the major substance found in the tap water and distilled bottle water, with detection rates of 100% and geometric means of 9.64 and 14.5 ng/L, respectively. There were some significant relationships between urinary UV filters and personal characteristics (BMI values, sex, income level, hand washing frequency, and body location usage), but the health risks associated with UV-filters in Hong Kong children might not be concerning. Only two children applied sun creams in this research, indicating that there were other sources to exposure these chemicals. Copyright © 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105246
JournalEnvironment International
Issue numberPart B
Early online dateOct 2019
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019


Li, N., Ho, W., Wu, R. S. S., Tsang, E. P. K., Ying, G.-G., & Deng, W.-J. (2019). Ultra violet filters in the urine of preschool children and drinking water. Environment International, 133(Part B). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105246


  • UV-filters
  • Urine
  • Children
  • Drinking water


Dive into the research topics of 'Ultra violet filters in the urine of preschool children and drinking water'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.