Trilingualism in education: Models and challenges

Robert Damian ADAMSON, Anwei FENG

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapters

16 Citations (Scopus)


This concluding chapter discusses a number of themes emerging from the book, in order to present a consolidated view of trilingualism in education in China. It presents a detailed discussion of the four models of trilingual education identified in earlier chapters—the Accretive, Balanced, Transitional and Depreciative Models, and argues that the Accretive and Balanced Models of trilingual education possess substantial potential to foster additive trilingualism in students, thereby granting numerous social, political, economic and educational advantages to students and Chinese society. In comparison, models such as the Transitional and Depreciative Models, which promote limited trilingualism or essentially aim to achieve solely bilingualism or monolingualism, are weak. However, popularising the strong models of trilingual education requires overcoming considerable challenges, such as establishing a consensus among stakeholders, setting realistic linguistic targets, and flexibly taking local contextual factors into account when implementing the strong models. Copyright © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTrilingualism in education in China: Models and challenges
EditorsAnwei FENG, Bob ADAMSON
Place of PublicationDordrecht
ISBN (Electronic)9789401793520
ISBN (Print)9789401793513
Publication statusPublished - 2015


Adamson, B., & Feng, A. (2015). Trilingualism in education: Models and challenges. In A. Feng, & B. Adamson (Eds.), Trilingualism in education in China: Models and challenges (pp. 243-258). Dordrecht: Springer.


  • Trilingualism
  • Language policy
  • China
  • Chinese
  • English
  • Ethnic minorities


Dive into the research topics of 'Trilingualism in education: Models and challenges'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.