Thinking styles in implicit and explicit learning

Qiuzhi XIE, Xiangping GAO, Ronnel Bornasal KING

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated whether individual differences in thinking styles influence explicit and implicit learning. Eighty-seven university students in China participated in this study. Results indicated that performance in the explicit learning condition was positively associated with Type I thinking styles (i.e. legislative and liberal styles) and the internal style and negatively associated with a Type II thinking style (i.e. conservative style) and the external style. There was no significant relationship between thinking styles and performance in the implicit learning condition. Taken together, these findings suggest that implicit and explicit learning are distinct, each influenced by different individual difference variables. It also provides support to the value-laden nature of styles, giving further evidence to the adaptiveness of Type I over Type II styles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)267-271
JournalLearning and Individual Differences
Early online dateOct 2012
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2013


Xie, Q., Gao, X., & King, R. B. (2013). Thinking styles in implicit and explicit learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 267-271.


  • Implicit learning
  • Explicit learning
  • Thinking styles


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