Formative assessment as an important component of instruction has long been claimed to play an important role in enhancing students’ academic achievement. Regardless of this strong belief, empirical findings from studies across the world about this effect are usually inconsistent. While many factors existing at different educational levels have been claimed to be responsible for these mixed findings, an important one has been recognized as culture difference that has led the effect of formative assessment to vary. Giving this gap, the current study was conducted to examine the variation of the effect of formative assessment on adolescents’ literacy achievement across the three major cultures in the world: Confucian-heritage countries, English speaking countries, and European Catholic countries. To achieve this goal, I used the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 reading responses data by adolescents from 19 countries: 5 Confucian-heritage countries, 5 English-Speaking countries, and 9 European Catholic countries. Results of multi-group multilevel mixture modeling showed that formative assessment worked in different mechanisms in facilitating adolescents’ literacy achievement: it worked as a direct predictor of literacy achievement for countries of the two Western cultures but as a suppressor a (booster) of another predictor (i.e., questioning) in facilitating literacy achievement. Implications for educational policy making and for the implementation of formative assessment strategies in these different cultures are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Education University of Hong Kong.
|Publication status||Published - Nov 2017|