This article describes an investigation into the use of self-assessment to facilitate students' learning in teacher education. The study aimed to explore whether there were any changes in students' teaching and learning practice after using self-assessment. Participants comprised 47 students who were enrolled in an in-service teacher education program and who engaged in a self-assessment process by setting goals, recording evidence, and evaluating their teaching performance. Questionnaire and focus group interviews were employed to examine the usefulness of the self-assessment and the possible changes in students' learning. Analysis of the results indicates that students found that self-assessment enhanced their learning during teaching practice, especially in the area of reflective thinking. The self-assessment process helped students to assess the quality of their teaching, and it provided information on which to reflect and plan their next lessons. Students also reported evidence of positive changes in terms of their planning, teaching, and reflection. Copyright © 2009 Taylor & Francis.