The rise of private supplementary tutoring: Contemporary issues and international perspectives on shadow education in China

Roy Y. CHAN, Hei Hang Hayes TANG, Patrick DELANEY

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapters

Abstract

Shadow education, also known as private supplementary tutoring (PST), has spread widely all over the world (Manzon and Areepattamannil, 2014). Notably, China (Mainland and Hong Kong) has experienced massive shadow education growth in the past two decades (Zhang and Bray, 2016), where PST is often viewed as an effective way for young adults to achieve higher test scores such as the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education Examination (HKDSE) and the National College Entrance Examination (NCCE), commonly known as the Gaokao (Bray et al., 2015). While numerous scholars have called for new empirical research on shadow education (Trent, 2016), research on PST has often lagged behind the expansion and diversification of the phenomenon (Liu and Bray, 2016). Furthermore, little is known about whether such activity helps students succeed in the HKDSE and NCCE, and to what extent these activities prepare them for higher education participation after high school (Bray and Lykins, 2012). Copyright © 2018 selection and editorial matter, Brendan Bartram; individual chapters, the contributors.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational and comparative education: Contemporary issues and debates
EditorsBrendan BARTRAM
Place of PublicationOxford
PublisherRouledge
Pages61-73
ISBN (Electronic)9781134799497, 9781315563091
ISBN (Print)9781138681576, 9781138681583
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Citation

Chan, Roy Y., Tang, H.-H. H., & Delaney, P. (2018). The rise of private supplementary tutoring: Contemporary issues and international perspectives on shadow education in China. In B. Bartram (Ed.), International and comparative education: Contemporary issues and debates (pp. 61-73). Oxford: Routledge.

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