This study tested how 53 kindergarteners' expressions of depth of vocabulary knowledge and use in novel contexts were related to in-context and out-of-context test formats for 16 target words. Applying multilevel, multi-categorical Logit to all 1,696 test item responses, the authors found that kindergarteners were more likely to express deep knowledge on the out-of-context test format and partial or decontextual knowledge on the in-context test format. No significant differences in kindergarteners' uses of vocabulary in novel contexts were found that were related to test type. These results suggest that educators select test formats for kindergarteners based on their vocabulary learning objectives. Copyright © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.