This article briefly describes the Hong Kong education system, discusses the policies and efforts for education quality and school improvement, and reviews the development of school effectiveness research in Hong Kong. Hong Kong people have shown their strong commitment to educational reform for better societal development in the coming decades. A number of important policies have been issued to improve educational practice and school management. Even though some drawbacks and difficulties have inevitably been encountered in policy formulation and implementation, numerous good opportunities have been created for policy-makers, school practitioners, and educational researchers to conduct educational innovation, school improvement, and school effectiveness research. The ongoing education experiments, reform experiences, improvement practices, and effectiveness studies at both the system and school levels may not only benefit Hong Kong people but also make a contribution to international concern for school effectiveness and improvement. Copyright © 1999 Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business.