The Encouragement Character Strength Scale (ECSS) is a self-report measure of encouragement, which refers to a tendency to enjoy and perceive oneself as being accomplished in communicating affirmations to motivate others. Although it is theoretically assumed as an overarching construct consisting of two domain-specific factors (i.e., perceived ability and enjoyment), there is inconclusive evidence regarding the most optimal factor structure of the encouragement construct. This study evaluated the factor structure, measurement invariance, and criterion-related validity of the Chinese version of the ECSS among teachers and undergraduate students in mainland China. Results showed that the bifactor model of encouragement demonstrated the best fit among undergraduate students and teachers. There was evidence supporting the measurement invariance of this factor structure across type of samples (i.e., teachers and undergraduate students) and gender. Ancillary bifactor indices indicate the superiority of using the ECSS’s overall or general factor over subscale scores. The ECSS total score also showed internal consistency and temporal stability. A review of correlations between encouragement and criterion variables (i.e., kindness, hope, agreeableness, and extraversion) indicates that effect sizes ranged from moderate to large. Furthermore, the encouragement general factor was positively correlated with both psychological well-being and work engagement after controlling for the aforementioned criterion variables and demographic covariates. Copyright © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
|Journal||Journal of Personality Assessment|
|Early online date||Jun 2022|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - Jun 2022|