The National randomized field trial of success for all: Second-year outcomes

Geoffrey D. BORMAN, Robert E. SLAVIN, Chi Keung Alan CHEUNG, Anne M. CHAMBERLAIN, Nancy A. MADDEN, Bette CHAMBERS

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49 Citations (Scopus)


This article reports literacy outcomes for a 2-year longitudinal student sample and a combined longitudinal and "in-mover" (i.e., those students who moved into the study schools between the initial pretest and the second-year posttest) sample, both of which were nested within 38 schools. Through the use of a cluster randomization design, schools were randomly assigned to implement Success for All or control methods. Hierarchical linear model analyses involving the longitudinal sample revealed statistically significant school-level effects of assignment to Success for All on three of the four literacy outcomes measured. Effects were as large as one quarter of a standard deviation—a learning advantage relative to controls exceeding half of a school year. Impacts for the combined longitudinal and in-mover sample were smaller in magnitude and more variable. The results correspond with the Success for All program theory, which targets school-level reform through multiyear sequencing of intensive literacy instruction. Copyright © 2005 by American Educational Research Association.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)673-696
JournalAmerican Educational Research Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2005


Borman, G. D., Slavin, R. E., Cheung, A. C. K., Chamberlain, A. M., Madden, N. A., & Chambers, B. (2005). The National randomized field trial of success for all: Second-year outcomes. American Educational Research Journal, 42(4), 673-696.


  • Educational policy
  • Experimental design
  • School reform


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