The implementation of the reciprocal style of teaching

Alberto CRUZ, Chung LI, Wai Keung Kevin KAM, Cheuk Kuen Eric TSANG

Research output: Contribution to conferencePapers


Mosston’s “spectrum of teaching styles” which composes of 11 pedagogical approaches in physical education, has been popularly promoted for maximizing students’ learning in the Western countries. However, very few of them have been put into practice and studied in Hong Kong. One of the teaching styles, reciprocal teaching style is thought to help tackle problems associated with large classes, limited equipment, and insufficient feedback to students. The purpose of the study was to investigate the perceptions and experiences of students and physical education teachers in reciprocal teaching. The factors that influence their teaching and learning were also examined. Four primary and secondary physical education teachers teaching in Kowloon, Hong Kong and New Territories and their four classes of students were purposely invited to take part in the study. The teachers were briefed the principles of the implementation of the reciprocal style and adopted reciprocal teaching implementing a 10-lesson unit. Qualitative data were collected by a combination of techniques: lesson observations, formal interviews of students and teachers, student reflective journals and teacher self-review. Constant comparison and analytic induction were used to organize and categorize the data. Findings indicated that the teachers were not used to the teaching format and encountered difficulties during the preparation. Experience, resources and tutors’ abilities were identified as major factors influencing the implementation and learning of students in reciprocal teaching. The help of teachers and the preparation of task card assisted both the tutors and tutees in the learning process. Most students held positive views of the reciprocal teaching and recognized the values of the approach. The more the teachers implement the approach, both teachers and students will get more familiar to the approach. Findings of the study hold implications in helping preservice and in-service physical education teachers to adopt innovative teaching approach in school practice.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2013


Cruz, A., Li, C., Kam, K. W. K., & Tsang, E. C. K. (2013, July). The implementation of the reciprocal style of teaching. Paper presented at the AIESEP 2013 International Conference: physical education and sport: Challenging the future, The Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland.


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