Corruption studies have suggested that corrupt politicians may win public support by providing substantial economic benefits to their citizens and that if a government works effectively to promote economic development, people may forgive its corruption problems. Thus, there is a positive relationship between citizens’ tolerance for political corruption and the economic benefits they receive from the government. Does economic well-being shape people's perceptions of corruption and the government's anti-corruption performance? If so, how and to what extent? To address the questions, this study draws on empirical data from a nationwide survey conducted in China in 2011. China makes an ideal case for the study because, although its unprecedented economic growth significantly improved people's living standards, the country has continued to suffer from rampant corruption. China's case illustrates the intricate relationships between the rise of economic status—perceived or actual—and attitudes toward the government's anti-corruption efforts among citizens. Copyright © 2015 Policy and Society Associates (APSS). Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.