The Hong Kong early child development scale: A validation study

Nirmala RAO, Jin SUN, Sui Ngan Sharon NG, Siu Wai Kitty MA, Yvonne BECHER, Diana LEE, Carrie LAU, Li ZHANG, Chun Bong CHOW, Patrick IP

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28 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports on the development and validation of the Hong Kong Early Child Development Scale (HKECDS), a holistic measure of child development designed specifically for preschool children in Hong Kong. Scale development was an iterative process and the first version of the scale contained 190 items whereas the final version includes only 95. Children ranging in age from three to six years were administered trial versions of the HKECDS in Studies 1 (n = 60) and 2 (n = 240). Item analyses indicated that it is a developmental scale and that it has an appropriate level of difficulty for preschool children. It also discriminates between three- to six-year-olds from different social backgrounds in Hong Kong. The final version of the HKECDS includes items from the following eight subscales: Personal, Social and Self-Care (7 items), Language Development (13 items), Pre-academic Learning (27 items), Cognitive Development (10 items), Gross Motor (12 items), Fine Motor (9 items), Physical Fitness, Health and Safety (7 items), and Self and Society (10 items). The HKECDS is the first early child development scale which considers both the holistic development of preschool children and incorporates current expectations of early child development in Hong Kong. In this era of evidence-based decision making, it can be used to evaluate both the efficacy of targeted interventions and broader child-related public policies on early child development in Hong Kong. Copyright © The Author(s) 2012.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-135
JournalChild Indicators Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013


Rao, N., Sun, J., Ng, S. S. N., Ma, K., Becher, Y., Lee, D., et al. (2013). The Hong Kong early child development scale: A validation study. Child Indicators Research, 6(1), 115-135.


  • Early child development scale
  • Holistic development
  • Validation
  • Chinese


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