The factor structure of complex PTSD in combat-exposed Filipino soldiers

Imelu G. MORDENO, Ma Jenina NALIPAY, Emelyn R. MORDENO

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The World Health Organization recently released the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases with the inclusion of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD). Despite the emerging research examining the symptom structure of CPTSD, to date, none so far have reached consensus on what best represents CPTSD, particularly in soldiers who are exposed regularly in combat situations. This study examined seven latent CPTSD models in a sample of Filipino combat-exposed soldiers (n = 450). Results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the correlated 6 factor first-order model (model 2), comprising of re-experiencing, avoidance, persistent sense of current threat, affective dysregulation, negative self-concept, and disturbances in relationships, has the best fit. These findings have implications for understanding CPTSD as a diagnostic entity and provide information on the assessment and crafting of complex trauma interventions, particularly among Filipino combat-exposed soldiers. Copyright © 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-69
JournalPsychiatry Research
Early online dateMay 2019
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019


Military Personnel
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders
International Classification of Diseases
Self Concept
Statistical Factor Analysis
Wounds and Injuries


Mordeno, I. G., Nalipay, M. J. N., & Mordeno, E. R. (2019). The factor structure of complex PTSD in combat-exposed Filipino soldiers. Psychiatry Research, 278, 65-69. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2019.05.035


  • ICD-11
  • Complex PTSD
  • Factor structure