This study investigated the influence of user factors and symbol referents on public symbol design among older people, using the stereotype production method for collecting user ideas during the symbol design process. Thirty-one older adults were asked to draw images based on 28 public symbol referents and to indicate their familiarity with and ease with which they visualised each referent. Differences were found between the pictorial solutions generated by males and females. However, symbol design was not influenced by participants' education level, vividness of visual imagery, object imagery preference or spatial imagery preference. Both familiar and unfamiliar referents were illustrated pictorially without much difficulty by users. The more visual the referent, the less difficulty the users had in illustrating it. The findings of this study should aid the optimisation of the stereotype production method for user-involved symbol design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
CitationNg, A. W. Y., Siu, K. W. M., & Chan, C. C. H. (2012). The effects of user factors and symbol referents on public symbol design using the stereotype production method. Applied Ergonomics, 43(1), 230-238. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2011.05.007
- Public symbol design
- Stereotype production method
- Symbol referents
- User participation