The effect of adventure-based experiential training on team cohesion of the HKIEd female soccer team: A pilot study

Kit Yee Joey WONG, Fu Po Violette LIN, Wai Keung Kevin KAM

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Adventure-based experiential training (ABET) has been claimed as a powerful and exciting method in education and company team development. The present study is in progress and aims to investigate how such a programme affects the team cohesion of a group of higher-education female soccer players. Twenty (Hong Kong Institute of Education, HKIEd) female soccer team players (mean age 21 years) participated in this quasi-experimental study. The ABET programme (a 3-hour training session with group initiative activities followed by a 1-day 8-hour challenge course events) will be conducted by trained facilitators 2 months after the team is formed. Team cohesion will be measured using a self-administered 18-item Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) with 4 subscales: Individual Attraction to Group Task, Individual Attraction to Group Social, Integration to Group Task, and Integration to Group Social (Carron, Brawley & Wildmeyer, 2002). The GEQ will be administered at (a) Baseline 1 (immediately when the team was formed), (b) Baseline 2 (1 week before the ABET programme), (c) Pretest (immediately prior to the ABET programme), (d) Posttest 1 (immediately following the ABET programme), (e) Posttest 2 (immediately at the commencement of the competition season), and (f) Follow-up (2 months after the competition season). Two baseline administrations were included due to the lack of a control group. Both immediate and long-term effects of the ABET programme will be assessed using 1-way ANOVA with post hoc comparisons (p<0.05). A positive correlation between the ABET programme and cohesion is expected. The results will be useful for sports team managers in programmes planning and coaches in enhancing team morale.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2008


Hong Kong
Analysis of Variance
Control Groups


Wong, K. Y., Lin, F. P. V., & Kam, W. K. K. (2008, January). The effect of adventure-based experiential training on team cohesion of the HKIEd female soccer team: A pilot study. Paper presented at the Association Internationale des Ecoles Superieures d'Education Physique World Congress 2008 (AIESEP 2008): North meets south: East meets west, University of Tsukuba, Sapporo, Japan.