Previous research has identified various internal and external factors that predict teachers' technology adoption. Limited studies have explored how these internal and external factors interplay to determine different types of technology use. This study used the survey responses of 280 English as foreign language (EFL) teachers to examine how two key external factors (ie, school culture and professional development) interact with the two constitutive internal components (ie, knowledge/skill and belief) to determine three types of technology use in teaching and learning (ie, technology for content delivery, technology for learning enrichment and technology for transformed education towards self-directed learning). It identified the salience of school culture, professional development and TPACK over teaching and learning beliefs in determining technology use. It further revealed that these factors influenced the three types of technology use differently. The findings suggest a differentiated approach towards researching and supporting teacher technology adoption. Practitioner notes What is already known about the topic Belief factors (Beliefs about teaching), knowledge factors (TPACK) and contextual factors (school culture and professional development) are significant predictors of teacher technology adoption. What this paper adds When examined together, school culture, professional development and TPACK were the more significant predictors of in-service EFL teachers' technology integration, and the contributions of the belief systems were minimal. The interactions of these factors vary for different types of teacher technology use. Implications for practice and/or policy Need differentiated considerations in supporting different types of teacher technology use. A favourable school culture is instrumental to teachers' technology use for content delivery and for supporting students' self-directed learning. TPACK is most critical to the use of technology for learning enrichment.