The associations between self-consciousness and internalizing/externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents

Yan-Gang NIE, Jianbin LI, Kai DOU, Qiao Min SITU

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8 Citations (Scopus)


Self-consciousness is considered as a multifaceted and hierarchical construct that includes self-evaluation, self-experience, and self-control. This study assumes that self-consciousness is a preventative factor of internalizing and externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents. 1202 Chinese adolescents from grade 7 to grade 12 participated in this study by completing a battery of questionnaires that assessed self-consciousness and internalizing/externalizing problems. The results showed that, after controlling demographic variables, some lower-order factors (i.e., sense of satisfaction, sense of anxiety, social self, self-restraint, self-esteem, and self-monitoring) and higher-order subscales (i.e., self-evaluation and self-experience) of self-consciousness significantly predicted internalizing problems, while externalizing problems were predicted by several lower-order factors (i.e., self-restraint, sense of satisfaction, and self-monitoring) and higher-order subscales (i.e., self-control and self-experience). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Chinese adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems are related with different aspects of self-consciousness, which sheds light on the prevention into adolescents' problem behaviors. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)505-514
JournalJournal of Adolescence
Issue number5
Early online date08 May 2014
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2014



Nie, Y.-G., Li, J.-B., Dou, K., & Situ, Q.-M. (2014). The associations between self-consciousness and internalizing/externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 37(5), 505-514. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.04.002


  • Self-consciousness
  • Internalizing problems
  • Externalizing problems
  • Preventive factor
  • Adolescents