Research Findings: This research investigated the association between job stress and emotional problems (i.e., depressive and anxious symptoms) as well as the mediation effect of self-control and the moderation effect of perceived social support among 118 mainland Chinese in-service kindergarten teachers. Participants took part in a three-wave longitudinal survey, with two months apart between each wave. They reported on their job stress at T1, self-control and perceived social support at T2, and emotional problems at T3. Results of moderated mediation model showed that after controlling for a number of demographic and occupational characteristics, high levels of job stress were positively related to emotional problems through self-control, particularly for those perceiving less social support. These findings reveal that low self-control and insufficient perceived social support are mechanisms partly explaining how and for whom job stress is related to depressive and anxious symptoms in kindergarten teachers. Practice or Policy: Reducing job stress, boosting self-control, and offering social support such as establishing a supportive workplace could be promising strategies to enhance mainland Chinese kindergarten teachers' emotional well-being. Copyright © 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.