Reading interventions developed to teach grapheme–phoneme correspondences (GPCs) were evaluated among L2 at-risk readers. In the direct mapping of grapheme (DMG) condition, children's attention was explicitly drawn to the application of a graphemes taught on that day to shared reading of words in authentic text. In the control condition there was no such systematic daily linkage of the GPCs and texts. The two reading interventions were otherwise identical. Two hundred fifty-three Chinese Grade 1 and Grade 2 students were screened, and those who scored in the bottom 30% of an English word-reading test were identified as L2 at-risk readers. Seventy-one L2 at-risk readers were thus randomly assigned to two conditions, both of which were small-group reading interventions: (a) DMG or (b) taught control. We hypothesized a significant main effect of Intervention condition and significant interaction of Intervention by Phonological Awareness (PA) effects on word reading, word attack, spelling, and sentence comprehension favoring the DMG intervention. Results showed that predicted interaction effects were significant for word reading, spelling, and sentence comprehension. No other effects were significant. Results suggest that the daily Direct Mapping of taught GPCs to shared book reading promotes reading development in at-risk English L2 readers with stronger phonological skills. Copyright © 2019 Hammill Institute on Disabilities.
CitationYeung, S. S.-S., & Savage, R. (2020). Teaching grapheme–phoneme correspondences using a direct mapping approach for at-risk second language learners: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 53(2), 131-144. doi: 10.1177/0022219419894563
- At risk/prevention
- Early identification/intervention