Since Sundqvist introduced the term "extramural English" in 2009, empirical research on extramural language learning has continued to expand. However, the expanding empirical research has yet yielded incommensurate review studies. To present a timely picture of the field of extramural language learning, this study conducts a review of 33 relevant articles retrieved from Scopus and Web of Science databases. The results showed the five types of target languages frequently investigated in this field (i.e., English, German, French, Chinese, and Japanese) and seven main types of extramural learning activities (i.e., playing digital games, watching videos, reading, listening to audios, having technology-enhanced socialisation, having face-to-face socialisation, and writing compositions). People's engagement in extramural language learning was overall high, especially listening to audios and playing digital games, mediated by the relationship between the difficulty of the activities and people's target language proficiency levels, gender, and the interactive environment. Extramural language learning was overall effective for language development and enhancing affective states in language learning. The effectiveness may be influenced by the involvement of language inputs and outputs and the amount of engagement time. Implications for practitioners were suggested concerning encouraging digital gameplay, emphasising formal language instruction, and creating positive interactive environments for extramural language learning. Copyright © 2021 Zhang et al.