Synthetic analogue of butenolide as an antifouling agent

Ho Yin CHIANG, Jinping CHENG, Xuan LIU, Chunfeng MA, Pei-Yuan QIAN

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Butenolide derivatives have the potential to be effective and environmentally friendly antifouling agents. In the present study, a butenolide derivative was structurally modified into Boc-butenolide to increase its melting point and remove its foul smell. The structurally modified Boc-butenolide demonstrated similar antifouling capabilities to butenolide in larval settlement bioassays but with significantly lower toxicity at high concentrations. Release-rate measurements demonstrated that the antifouling compound Boc-butenolide could be released from polycaprolactone-polyurethane (PCL-PU)-based coatings to inhibit the attachment of foulers. The coating matrix was easily degraded in the marine environment. The performance of the Boc-butenolide antifouling coatings was further examined through a marine field test. The coverage of biofouler on the Boc-butenolide coatings was low after 2 months, indicating the antifouling potential of Boc-butenolide. Copyright © 2021 by the authors.
Original languageEnglish
Article number481
JournalMarine Drugs
Issue number9
Early online date25 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


Chiang, H. Y., Cheng, J., Liu, X., Ma, C., & Qian, P.-Y. (2021). Synthetic analogue of butenolide as an antifouling agent. Marine Drugs, 19(9). Retrieved from


  • Antifouling compounds
  • Structural optimisation
  • Butenolide
  • Larval attachment assay


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