Synthesis and evaluation of Ca-doped ferrihydrite as a novel adsorbent for the efficient removal of fluoride

Khalil AHMAD, Izaz Ali SHAH, Sharafat ALI, Muhammad Tariq KHAN, Muhammad Bilal Ahmed QURESHI, Syed Hassan Ali SHAH, Asmat ALI, Wajid RASHID, Hifza Nayab GUL

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14 Citations (Scopus)


Ferric hydrate has been extensively applied for the removal of various types of pollutants from wastewater because of its low cost and high efficiency. However, its wide-scale application has been greatly restricted by high-dose and low-adsorption capacity. Therefore, a novel Ca-doped ferrihydrite adsorbent has been synthesized and used for the enhanced removal of fluoride from wastewater in the presence of other co-existing ions. At 5 mg/L initial fluoride concentration and pH 5, the removal efficiency of fluoride approached to 97.5% and remained stable. Similarly, with the increase of dose from 100 to 300 mg/L, the fluoride removal linearly increased to 98% and remained plateau at neutral pH. Also, the presence of co-existing ions such as NO₃⁻, SO₄²⁻, Cl⁻, and natural organic matter has not significantly influenced the removal performance of the adsorbent. Fluoride removal best fit the pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model. The prepared adsorbent exhibited a maximum adsorption capacity of 53.21 mg/g for fluoride uptake from water. The SEM-EDX confirmed the doping of Ca onto the ferrihydrite where the elemental peaks of Ca and Fe emerged at the energy value of about 3.6 Kev and 7.1 Kev respectively in EDX analysis. In addition, SEM results of Ca-doped ferrihydrite adsorbent illustrated that a large microplates type of products was acquired after synthesis. The regeneration results confirmed that adsorbent could retain their original adsorption capacity after five regeneration cycles. The current study suggested that Ca-doped ferrihydrite has the application potential for the enhanced adsorption of fluoride from the water phase. Copyright © 2021 The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6375-6388
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number4
Early online date27 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


Ahmad, K., Shah, I. A., Ali, S., Khan, M. T., Qureshi, M. B. A., Shah, S. H. A., . . . Gul, H. N. (2022). Synthesis and evaluation of Ca-doped ferrihydrite as a novel adsorbent for the efficient removal of fluoride. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(4), 6375-6388. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-16105-5


  • Ca-doped ferrihydrite
  • Fluoride
  • Synthesis
  • Removal
  • Adsorption
  • PG student publication


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