Spatial distribution and accumulation profiles of volatile methylsiloxanes in Tokyo Bay, Japan: Mass loadings and historical trends

Yuichi HORII, Kotaro MINOMO, Chung Wah James LAM, Nobuyoshi YAMASHITA

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

Abstract

We investigated mass loading and the spatial distribution of volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs) including four cyclic VMSs (D3–D6; cVMSs, the number refers to the number of S-O bonds) and three linear VMSs (L3–L5; lVMSs) in Tokyo Bay, Japan, which is one of the most industrialized, urbanized, and populated areas in the world. Based on the VMS concentrations determined in eight main inflow rivers to the bay, the mass loading of VMSs via inflow rivers and sewage treatment plants located in Tokyo Bay was estimated at 2500 kg/y for total VMSs. Elevated mass loadings of VMSs were found in three of the rivers, inflowing to the inner west of Tokyo Bay. The distribution and deposition characteristics of VMSs were observed depending on the estuarine condition. Estuarine sediments were found to be efficient and effective traps for VMSs and the salting-out effect is one possible mechanism to explain this phenomenon. The overall profiles of D4, D5, and D6 in surface water and sediment were observed across Tokyo Bay; elevated concentrations were identified in the inner west bay with dispersed low concentrations in the outer bay, except for one hotspot of D4 in the sediment, indicating a major emission route of VMSs via inflow rivers. Additionally, the historical pollution profiles of VMSs in Tokyo Bay were reconstructed based on the VMS concentrations determined in a dated sediment core. VMSs were identified throughout the upper 40 cm of the sediment core (representing the mid 1980s); the profiles correspond with the historical use of VMSs in wash-off personal care-products. The noted decreasing trend of D4 might be a reflection of the early 2000s replacement of D4 with D5 in such products. The elevated VMS concentrations in the estuarine sediment raise concerns about the impact on the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Article number150821
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume806
Issue numberPt.4
Early online dateOct 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Oct 2021

Citation

Horii, Y., Minomo, K., Lam, J. C. W., & Yamashita, N. (2022). Spatial distribution and accumulation profiles of volatile methylsiloxanes in Tokyo Bay, Japan: Mass loadings and historical trends. Science of the Total Environment, 806(Pt.4). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150821

Keywords

  • Siloxanes
  • Sediment
  • Tokyo Bay
  • Estuary
  • Historical trends
  • Flux

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