Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to explaining variance in ethical behaviors than do values at the societal-level. Implicitly, our findings question the soundness of using societal-level values measures. Implications for international business research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Ralston, D. A., Egri, C. P., Furrer, O., Kuo, M.-H., Li, Y., Wangenheim, F., et al. (2014). Societal-level versus individual-level predictions of ethical behavior: A 48-socirty study of collectivism and individualism. Journal of Business Ethics, 122(2), 283-306.
- Cultural values
- Influence ethics
- Hierarchical linear modeling