Social exclusion in old age: A validation study in Hong Kong

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Objectives: To validate a measure of social exclusion for older people based on one already in use for the general population. Methods: A random sample of 2281 older adults (age ranged from 65 to 89; mean age = 74.9; 52.6% females) were successfully interviewed face-to-face at their homes. The structured questionnaire included household income, household expenditure, asset, self-perceived poverty, household composition, socioeconomic characteristics of participants, and a measure of social exclusion. Results: Using factor analysis, we identified two dimensions in the measure of social exclusion, namely ‘neighborhood exclusion’ and ‘limited social participation.’ The internal consistency of the social exclusion index (Cronbach's alpha = 0.80) and its two dimensions were found to be adequate (Cronbach's alpha = 0.81–0.84). Its concurrent validity was also good and showed a significant correlation between household income (r = 0.28, p < 0.01), personal assets (r = 0.34, p < 0.01), and self-perceived poverty (r = 0.43, p < 0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that it is possible to develop a social exclusion measure that is valid and reliable for older Hong Kong Chinese people. This measure can help policy-makers decide on the priorities and develop policies that better meet the needs of older people. Copyright © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. 
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1072-1079
JournalAging & Mental Health
Issue number8
Early online dateMay 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2018


Chou, K.-L. (2018). Social exclusion in old age: A validation study in Hong Kong. Aging & Mental Health, 22(8), 1072-1079. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2017.1330870


  • Social exclusion
  • Older people
  • Validation
  • Chinese
  • Hong Kong


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