Indoor and outdoor dusts from two urban centers in the Pearl River Delta, China, were analyzed and phthalate esters varied from 4.95 to 2220 μg g−1 in indoor dust, significantly higher than outdoor dust (1.70–869 μg g−1). Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the dominant phthalate found and the highest distribution factor (DF) (1.56 ± 0.41) was noted in the <63 μm fraction (p < 0.05). In vitro cytotoxicity of dust extract on human T cell lymphoblast leukemic cell line (CCRF-CEM) indicated by Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50) decreased with particle size. The power model was found as a better fit for explaining the relationship between LC50 and phthalates (R2 = 0.46, p < 0.01). Bioaccessibility of phthalates in dust varied with different particle sizes, with the greatest bioaccessible fraction (2.49–38.6%) obtained in <63 μm. Risk assessment indicated that indoor dust ingestion accounted for the major source for DEHP exposure (81.4–96.4% of non-dietary exposure and 36.5% of total exposure), especially for toddlers. The cancer risks associated with DEHP via home dust were high (10−6–10−4), with 10% of houses estimated with unacceptable risks (>10−4). After corrected with the bioaccessibility of phthalates, the cancer risks of dust exposure were moderate (10−7–10−5). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Journal||Journal of Hazardous Materials|
|Early online date||May 2013|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2013|
CitationWang, W., Wu, F.-Y., Huang, M.-J., Kang, Y., Cheung, K. C., & Wong, M. H. (2013). Size fraction effect on phthalate esters accumulation, bioaccessibility and in vitro cytotoxicity of indoor/outdoor dust, and risk assessment of human exposure. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 261, 753-762. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.04.039
- Phthalate esters
- Size fraction effect
- Risk assessment