Background and objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical screening prevent cervical cancer effectively. However, there are concerns whether vaccination leads to high-risk sexual behaviors and less intention for cervical screening. We aimed to evaluate the influence of HPV vaccination on high-risk sexual behaviors, and intention for cervical screening among young Chinese females. We also reported the latest HPV vaccination uptake in Hong Kong. Methods: A population-based survey was conducted between September 2016 and January 2017. Subjects were school-age girls from twenty-five secondary schools (in-school) and community females between 18 and 27 years (out-school). Demographics, vaccine-related attitudes, intention for cervical screening and participants’ sexual behaviors were examined. Results: We surveyed 2260 females from in-school (n = 1664) and out-school (n = 596) settings. 11.5% in-school and 23.5% out-school participants received at least one dose of HPV vaccine. Vaccination was not associated with age (in-school Odds Ratio [OR] 0.99, p = 0.87; out-school OR 1, p = 0.94), ethnicity (in-school OR 0.82, p = 0.72; out-school OR 0, p = 0.98), maternal education (in-school OR for secondary school 1.19, p = 0.43; for post-secondary school 1.28, p = 0.48), underage sex (in-school OR 1.22, p = 0.80; out-school OR 0.63, p = 0.67), earlier sexual exposure (in-school β 0.01, p = 0.99; out-school β 0.13, p = 0.68), multiple sex partners (in-school OR 3.27, p = 0.22; out-school OR 1.16, p = 0.43), and unprotected sex (in-school OR 1.14, p = 0.78; out-school OR 0.60, p = 0.10). Out-school females with higher personal education level was associated with higher vaccine uptake (post-secondary OR 3.4, p < 0.001; bachelor's degree or above OR 3.71, p < 0.001). More vaccinated females intended for cervical screening (in-school 23.6% vs. 21.1%; out-school 53.6% vs. 43.6%). Costs and knowledge were important factors for non-vaccination and non-intention for cervical screening. Conclusions: HPV vaccination was not associated with earlier and high risk sexual behavior among Chinese young females. Vaccinated Chinese young females had a higher intention for cervical screening.