School environment and student performance: A multi-level analysis

Wai Ming Frank TAM, Yin Cheong CHENG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review


The purpose of this study was to employ the multi-level statistical model to investigate the relationship of the school social environment to the performance of students. The school environment was conceptualized into five aspects: instructional, structural, human, political, and cultural. The student performance was assessed in terms of learning efficacy and the Chinese, English, and Mathematics achievements in the Hong Kong Attainment Test. The study was a cross-sectional survey, involving 61 aided primary schools, 1407 teachers, and 4715 students in Hong Kong. There were two levels of analysis - school environment variables at the school level, and the student performance at the individual level. The correlation analysis and one-way ANOVA revealed that some components of the school environment are related to certain school contextual factors. The multi-level analysis revealed that the contribution of environmental factors such as the caring and support factor, formalization factor, and pupil control factor to students' Chinese, English, and Mathematics achievement cannot be ignored. Copyright © 1995 Hong Kong Educational Research Association.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5-21
JournalEducational Research Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1995


Tam, W.-M., & Cheng, Y.-C. (1995). School environment and student performance: A multi-level analysis. Educational Research Journal, 10(1), 5-21.


  • School social environment
  • Student performance
  • Multi-level statistical model
  • Hong Kong attainment tests
  • Cross-sectional survey


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