Dust, enriched by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), was defined as a new route of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) exposure, especially for children. Chemical analyses showed the medians of ∑OCPs were 171 (outdoor) and 520 (indoor) μgkg-1 in Guangzhou (GZ) while 130 (outdoor) and 115 (indoor) μgkg-1 in Hong Kong (HK). Significantly higher accumulative effect of OCPs occurred in the size fractions of <63 and 63-100μm than 100-280 and 280-2000μm, therefore 0-100μm dust particles were used for risk evaluation. Different cytotoxic effects on human hepatocellular live carcinoma cell (HepG2) and human skin keratinocyte cell line (KERTr) were found for extracts of indoor dust and outdoor dust from different functional areas. For total exposure (dust and food), OCPs intake via dust was low for adults (accounting for 0.16-3.78% of total exposure), while for children it was high (8.16-24.4% of total exposure). Non-carcinogenic OCPs exposure via dust was safe for adults; however DDT and Dieldrin exposure for children was higher than Reference Dose (RfD). The cancer risk related to indoor dust exposure for GZ and HK was moderate, below 10-4, while 42% of residences in GZ should be of concern (10-5). However, when bioaccessible OCPs used, daily intake and health risk were found to be greatly lower than the estimates without considering bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CitationWang, W., Huang, M.-J., Wu, F.-Y., Kang, Y., Wang, H.-S., Cheung, K. C., & Wong, M. H. (2013). Risk assessment of bioaccessible organochlorine pesticides exposure via indoor and outdoor dust. Atmospheric Environment, 77, 525-533. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.04.071
- Size fraction effect
- Daily exposure
- In vitro cytotoxicity