Responses of Bioaugmented ryegrass to PAH soil contamination

J. H. LI, X. Z. YU, S. C. WU, X. R. WANG, S. H. WANG, N. F. Y. TAM, Ming Hung WONG

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12 Citations (Scopus)


The physiological and biochemical responses of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) to PAH induced stress in soils contaminated with phenanthrene and pyene were investigated, in the presence of PAH-degrading bacteria (Acinetobacteria junii) or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi, Glomus mossae). The parameters monitored included chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio, soluble-carbohydrate content, soluble-protein, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities. Ryegrass showed good resistance and acclimation to PAH stress in soil, however, PAH contamination resulted in adverse effects such as damage of photosynthetic function and acceleration of shoot senescence. At PAH level of 100 mg kg⁻¹, chlorophyll contents were 14% lower than control (no PAH). Activities of SOD and POD were more sensitive indicators of PAH stress as compared to other parameters. However, all parameters showed trends based on either the bioaugmentation of the plants or PAH treatment level. It was concluded that the inoculation of AMF and PAH-degrading bacteria, especially the former, have a positive effect on alleviation of PAH toxicity to ryegrass plants. Furthermore, the inoculation of AMF increased the shoot and biomass of ryegrass by 11–19% and 18–78%, respectively. Bioaugmented ryegrass plants show promise as a host plants in the phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)441-455
JournalInternational Journal of Phytoremediation
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2011


Li, J. H., Yu, X. Z., Wu, S. C., Wang, X. R., Wang, S. H., Tam, N. F. Y., & Wong, M. H. (2011). Responses of Bioaugmented ryegrass to PAH soil contamination. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 13(5), 441-455. doi: 10.1080/15226510903353104


  • Stress
  • PAHs
  • PAH-degrading bacteria
  • Mycorrhizal fungi
  • Acclimation


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