Research on the design and implementation of primary school STEM project based on VR coursewares

Yishan Ellen XIE, Xinhua ZHANG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review


STEM education is widely recognized as a powerful means of cultivating well-rounded future talent. However, challenges such as difficulties in observation, declining learning interests, and the lack of teaching resources present obstacles to the implementation of STEM education in China. Virtual Reality (VR), with its immersive, interactive, and imaginative capabilities, has the potential to enhance STEM learning by expanding the boundaries of the physical classroom. In light of these considerations and the fact that STEM activities frequently involve project-based learning (PBL), this research conducted a VR-integrated STEM PBL course entitled “Bird Feeder” at a primary school in Guangzhou. The main goal of this research was to investigate how the “VR + STEM” course affected students’ comprehension of scientific knowledge, students’ design and the acceptance of teacher and students. Twenty-seven Grade 6 students (aged 11–12) participated in the course which comprised four lessons. Two VR coursewares with specific content were developed and used as interventions during the course. Data was collected through pre- and post-tests of scientific knowledge, analysis of students’ design drafts, observation of VR learning activities, and interviews. Results from the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test (p = 0.000) and content analysis indicated that the “VR + STEM” course significantly improved students’ understanding of scientific concepts, enhanced their design skills, and was well-received by both teachers and students. These findings suggest that VR-based STEM project in primary schools is both feasible and effective in addressing the challenges facing STEM education. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. 

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Technology and Design Education
Early online dateSept 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Sept 2023


Xie, Y., & Zhang, X. (2023). Research on the design and implementation of primary school STEM project based on VR coursewares. International Journal of Technology and Design Education. Advance online publication.


  • Virtual reality
  • VR Coursewares
  • STEM Projects
  • 5E learning model
  • Understanding and application of scientific knowledge


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