Research on risk and resilience evaluation of urban underground public space

Xiaojuan LI, Lulu LI, Mingchao LIN, Chi Yung JIM

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlespeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


High urban density, land scarcity, rapid population growth, and traffic congestion have restricted urban development. In response, selected multiple functions have increasingly been integrated into the underground public space (UPS) to maximize the 3D utilization of precious urban space. The accelerated intensity of UPS use has alerted safety concerns. UPS with enclosed and confined natures, complex building structures, locations usually in cramped areas, and limited emergency exits are potentially more prone to heavy casualties and losses in natural or human-made disasters. As research on UPS safety is limited and focused on single risks, we attempted to fill the knowledge gap by developing an integrated risk analysis of UPS to understand risk resilience and improve risk management. From the perspective of the UPS system, four latent factors were identified: natural environment, economic environment, facilities and equipment, and physical structure. Seventeen resilience indicators subsumed under the factors were selected based on resilience concepts. A questionnaire was designed to gather opinions on the relative importance rating of the resilience indicators. SPSS and AMOS software were enlisted to build a structural equation model (SEM), validate the data and model, and calculate the path coefficients and index weights to test four hypotheses. The SEM model results were employed to develop a holistic resilience enhancement strategy under a four-phase framework: before, during, after, and long-term, and under four latent factors. The resilience enhancements can optimize UPS disaster prevention, rescue and evacuation, mitigation, and response management. Copyright © 2022 by the authors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15897
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


Li, X., Li, L., Lin, M., & Jim, C. Y. (2022). Research on risk and resilience evaluation of urban underground public space. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(23). Retrieved from


  • Underground public space
  • Safety science
  • Risk assessment
  • Resilience evaluation
  • Resilience improvement


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