As drawn from the experience of European universities during the medieval period, a university can be mainly defined as a scholarly institution for independent thought, criticism, and creativity that is governed, in large measure, by its community members (Hetherington 1965; Jaspers 1959; Martin 1972). Research is seen as a scholarly activity that helps to define the principal functions—that is, creating new knowledge, pursuing truth, and transmitting culture—that are central to a university’s identity (Newman 1959; Clark 1984). A university should maintain a certain distance and independence from the surrounding culture so that it may pursue truth without external interruptions from government, business, or religion (Moor 1993; Mori 1993). Copyright © 2015 John N. Hawkins and Ka Ho Mok.
|Title of host publication||Research, development, and innovation in Asia pacific higher education|
|Editors||John N. HAWKINS, Ka Ho MOK|
|Place of Publication||New York|
|Publication status||Published - 2015|
CitationPan, S.-Y. (2015). Research, development, and academic culture in Chinese universities: A historical reflection. In J, N. Hawkins, K. H. Mok (Eds.), Research, development, and innovation in Asia pacific higher education (pp. 225-244). New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Academic freedom
- High education policy
- Academic culture
- Soviet model
- Nationalist government