Removal of steroid hormones and biocides from rural wastewater by an integrated constructed wetland

Jun CHEN, You-Sheng LIU, Wenjing DENG, Guang-Guo YING

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4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Steroid hormones and biocides are regarded as emerging contaminants in rural wastewater in China, owing to their widespread occurrence and adverse effects on both aquatic organisms and humans. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an alternative technology for cost-effective and efficient decentralized rural sewage treatment. In this study, an integrated constructed wetland (ICW) system was built and used to treat a typical rural wastewater mixture composed of domestic sewage and livestock wastewater from a small village. As expected, five steroid hormones (ADD, AED, 19-NTD, T, and P) and four biocides (DEET, TCS, CBD, and MP) were detected in the influent in concentrations ranging from 30.5 ± 1.25 ng/L to 105 ± 5.14 ng/L and from 63.4 ± 2.85 ng/L to 515 ± 19.7 ng/L, respectively. The ICW system effectively removed the detected steroid hormones (97.4 ± 0.09%) and biocides (92.4 ± 0.54%). Based on the measured concentrations, the total pollution loadings of the detected steroid hormones and biocides in the influent were calculated to be 2330 ± 26.5 μg/day and 5710 ± 196 μg/day, which decreased to 60.8 ± 1.44 μg/day and 433 ± 25.6 μg/day in the final effluent. The risk quotients for these steroid hormones and biocides in the effluent from the ICW system were lower than those from reported wastewater treatment plants, indicating that CWs are a promising technology for removing contaminants including steroid hormones and biocides in rural wastewater, although additional efforts are required to optimize and improve the design of CWs before the steroid hormones and biocides present in the effluent can be safely and directly discharged into the environment. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)358-365
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume660
Early online dateJan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019

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Steroid hormones
Biocides
Disinfectants
Wetlands
steroid
constructed wetland
hormone
Wastewater
pesticide
wastewater
Effluents
effluent
DEET
Impurities
Aquatic organisms
Sewage treatment
pollutant
Sewage
aquatic organism
removal

Citation

Chen, J., Liu, Y.-S., Deng, W.-J., & Ying, G.-G. (2019). Removal of steroid hormones and biocides from rural wastewater by an integrated constructed wetland. Science of The Total Environment, 660, 358-365. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.049

Keywords

  • Steroid hormones
  • Biocides
  • Integrated constructed wetland
  • Removal
  • Ecological risk