Reframing citizenship education in Beijing: Competing views and strategies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This narrative documentary study depicts two approaches of citizenship education (CE) in Beijing over the past decade—change through curriculum development, versus change through the international exchange of ideals and practices. It reveals the varied interests of CE designers and the tensions arising from competing approaches to CE. Analysis unfolds three dimensions of CE in Beijing, i.e. CE as a civic mission advocated by Chinese scholars, as a diplomatic platform for local government to showcase the city’s image building, and as an authoritarian agent serving to resist notions and terminologies associated with the state’s political enemies. Reframing the citizenship discourses into these three dimensions allows us to order, conceptually, how we approach the function of CE in Beijing. The case of Beijing illuminates the methods, tensions, and likely future directions of CE in other Chinese polities, such as Hong Kong. Copyright © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)643-658
JournalOxford Review of Education
Issue number6
Early online dateMar 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2017


curriculum development
technical language
international relations
Hong Kong


Pan, S.-Y. (2017). Reframing citizenship education in Beijing: Competing views and strategies. Oxford Review of Education, 43(6), 643-658.


  • Citizenship
  • Citizenship education
  • Diplomacy
  • Authoritarian
  • China